Definitions

UN Regional Groups

All the cases in the index have been classified in terms of the UN Regional Group of the relevant state(s), the type of armed conflict, the type of peace initiative, and the extent to which those initiatives have been successful. As most wars take place either between or within states, each case has been categorised according to the UN Regional Group of the state(s) involved to expedite comparative analysis.

Africa

Asia-Pacific

Eastern Europe

Latin America and the Caribbean

Western Europe and Others

Type of Conflict

As the index includes measures to prevent war, we have employed the four categories of armed conflict defined by the UCDP in addition to five more reflecting potential conflicts, for a total of nine classifications:

Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict

The use of armed force between two organised armed groups, neither of which is the government of a state.

Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict

An armed conflict between a government and a non-governmental party, with no interference from other countries.

Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement

An armed conflict between a government and a non-governmental party, with no interference from other countries.

Interstate Conflict

A conflict between two or more governments.

Risk of a Conflict Relapse

Most countries that suffer from an intrastate conflict experience at least one conflict relapse during or after the implementation of a peace process.

Risk of a Horizontal (non-state) Intrastate Conflict

Demonstrable risk that armed force was going to employed by two organised armed groups, neither of which is the government of a state.

Risk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict

Demonstrable risk of an armed conflict between a government and a non-governmental party, with no interference from other countries.

Risk of a Vertical (state-based) Intrastate Conflict with Foreign Involvement.

Demonstrable risk of an armed conflict between a government and a non-government party where the government side, the opposing side, or both sides, receive direct military support from other governments that actively participate in the conflict.

Risk of an Interstate Conflict

Demonstrable risk of an armed conflict between two or more governments.

Type of Initiative

Each of the cases is tagged with at least one of the 12 types of peace initiative that we have identified at this stage:

Diplomacy

A range of methods employed by governments involved in or external to an armed conflict to influence the decisions and behaviour of one or more of the belligerent parties through dialogue, negotiation, and other measures short of military intervention.

International transitional administration

The temporary assumption of responsibility of the principal governance functions of a state or territory by one or more international organisations.

Legal prosecutions

Removing political and military leaders who are committed to continued conflict from their societies and holding them to account for their actions in a national or international court of law.

Local action

The efforts of local people and organisations (including civil society groups, trade unions, religious groups, councils of elders, and ad hoc initiatives, as well as specialist non-governmental organisations) to stop war.

Mediation of a peace agreement

An individual, organisation, or government that is not party to the conflict successfully oversees the negotiation of a peace agreement between the belligerents.

Military intervention

The use of armed force by a government that was previously not involved in an armed conflict with the express intention of incapacitating one or more of the belligerents to end the conflict.

Monitoring, observation, political, and verification missions

Civilian or unarmed military personnel from governments and organisations that are not party to the conflict are deployed to support a peace process without the use of force.

Peace infrastructure

The creation and maintenance of a dynamic network of interdependent structures, mechanisms, resources, values, and skills which, through dialogue and consultation, contribute to reducing armed conflict.

Peacekeeping mission

The deployment of military personnel from one or more countries that are not party to the conflict, either at the invitation of one or more of the belligerents or at the request of the United Nations Security Council. (Note: As most of the cases in the index took place prior to the High-Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations published its June 2015 report, which stressed the need to stop bifurcating armed peacekeeping missions and special political missions and instead view them as an integral spectrum of peace operations, the index separates these approaches.)

Resolution of militarised territorial dispute

Developing a peaceful solution to a territorial dispute through bilateral negotiations or third-party arbitration.

Stabilising international borders

Taking measures to reduce the likelihood of cross-border crises and disputes (displaced populations, attacks by exiled opposition groups, intercommunal conflicts, raiding, etc) from sparking armed conflict.

Other

Unique efforts which defy classification.

Impact

Cognizant of the fact that the concept of success is slippery and difficult to pin down in policy analysis, the extent to which the efforts to stop war have been successful are simply divided into two categories:

Lasting

The processes documented in the respective case contributed to creating a peace which has held until the time of writing.

Limited

The processes documented in the respective case stopped the fighting for a limited amount of time or within a specific area; contained an armed conflict but failed to resolve it; or demonstrably mitigated the impact of an armed conflict but did not stop the fighting itself.